Disasters in the World and Türkiye in 2022

Aslı Akay
Prof. Dr. Ankara Social Sciences University, Department of Political Science and Public Administration

In 2022, the war in Russia and Ukraine, which is becoming increasingly destructive and the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected almost every country globally, have left a significant mark in history. Today, the increasing meteorological disasters due to climate change and the systemic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic indicate a new reality. The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened countries, societies, and individuals since 2020, while also demonstrating the need for governments to take urgent measures and develop quick response behaviors against changing threats.The latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and COP27 emphasize the impossibility of keeping global warming below the 1.5°C threshold without efforts to reduce carbon emissions by all sectors. Global assessment reports prepared by the UN highlight the need for much greater efforts to achieve the global goals set within the Sendai Framework for Disaster Reduction 2015-2030 as we approach the midpoint. During this process, necessary roadmaps, guidelines, and solutions are also provided to facilitate the implementation of actions.1

In addition, in the annual report prepared by the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre, the Secretary General of IFRC, Japan Chapagain, stated at the 11th European Regional Conference held in April 2022 that the ‘3C’ threats of COVID-19, climate change, and conflicts still persist in countries.2 These risks increase the uncertainty for the future, highlighting the importance of understanding and reducing disaster risk in today’s world to achieve sustainable development. The best defense against future risks involves identifying and mitigating risks, building resilience to disasters by addressing climate change, reducing economic, environmental, physical, and social vulnerabilities, exposure and inequality.3

When evaluated in terms of natural disasters, the year 2022 has been a year in which disasters occurred consecutively worldwide and their impacts have multiplied. As in previous years, the most devastating disasters this year mainly occurred in the Asia-Pacific region. Floods in Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Thailand; droughts in China, Kiribati, and Tuvalu; typhoons Megi and Nalgae in the Philippines; heatwaves in India, Japan, and Pakistan; earthquakes in Afghanistan, Fiji, and Indonesia have caused loss of life and property and negatively impacted the countries’ development processes. Widespread floods accounted for 74.4% of the region’s disaster events and 88.4% of total global deaths in 2022.4

Studies conducted by the World Weather Attribution Initiative5 identified the 2022 floods in Pakistan, which affected 33 million people and caused 1,739 deaths, as ‘fingerprints’ of climate change in extreme monsoon rainfall. Pakistan witnessed the melting of glaciers during record spring temperatures, followed by unprecedented monsoon rains that devastated a significant part of the country. The cascading disasters, including the emergence of waterborne diseases due to the floods, fueled existing economic crises with increased food and fuel prices.4 6 7 Additionally, in 2022, flood events impacted 7.2 million people in Bangladesh and 1.3 million people in India. March and April were observed as the hottest months ever recorded in India and Pakistan. Indonesia, located on the Ring of Fire, was shaken by a magnitude 5.6 earthquake in November 2022, claiming more than 330 lives. Afghanistan was affected by a magnitude 5.9 earthquake in June 2022, resulting in over 1,000 fatalities. These countries, with high vulnerability in many respects, have experienced a series of interconnected disasters triggering one another.4

The LANCET Countdown 2022 Report was published during a time when the world was facing multiple simultaneous disasters. The report evaluates the healthcare system of countries while conducting an assessment for the year 2022. It highlights that as the world continues to struggle with the health, social, and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the invasion of Ukraine by Russia and excessive dependence on fossil fuels have pushed the world into global energy and cost-of-living crises. As these crises emerge, the worsening effects of climate change increasingly threaten the foundations of human health and well-being. The report emphasizes that the vulnerability of the world’s population to health risks is worsening simultaneously everywhere.8

The IFRC 2022 World Disasters Report titled ‘Trust, Equality, and Local Action’ has been published. The report confirms that more than 6.5 million people have died in less than three years due to the COVID-19 pandemic surpassing the death toll of any recorded earthquake, drought, or hurricane. The report estimates that the ongoing effects of the pandemic will cause a global economic loss of 13.8 trillion USD by the end of 2024, according to the IMF. In this regard, the importance of being prepared based on the principles of trust, equality, and local action is emphasized. Trust is highlighted because measures against the pandemic, including vaccines, public health information, and isolation precautions, cannot be sustained without trust. Equality is mentioned because pandemics exacerbate existing inequalities, and unless access to services and critical products, including vaccines, is legally guaranteed, controlling the pandemic is not possible. Emphasis is placed on local action because outbreaks begin and end in communities. Governments need to leverage and support local action to build flexibility, security, and healthcare systems. The report provides recommendations based on these three principles, aiming to help communities be prepared, establish robust community health systems, and protect and support frontline responders.9

Disaster Management in Türkiye in 2022 

2022 was a significant year for disaster management in Türkiye, considering the disasters the country experienced and its capacity to respond. While disasters remained on the global agenda, it is important to evaluate the progress made by Türkiye in terms of legal, administrative, institutional structures, and planning.

The COVID-19 pandemic, a global disaster, resulted in the loss of 6.5 million lives worldwide. In Türkiye, according to the data from the Ministry of Health as of November 2022, the total number of COVID-19 cases related to the virus was 17,042,722, and the total number of deaths was 101,492.10 The outbreak caused the highest number of casualties in our country from a single disaster and created numerous negative social, economic, and psychological impacts on society. 

In addition to the COVID-19 pandemic, natural disasters occurred in Türkiye in 2022, including forest fires, earthquakes, and floods. Unfortunately, there was also a mining accident resulting in the loss of 28 lives, categorized as human-induced and/or technological disaster. The historical and administrative process related to these disasters is as follows:

Forest Fires

On June 21, 2022, a forest fire occurred in the district of Marmaris in Muğla, and intervention efforts were carried out in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry’s General Directorate of Forestry and AFAD. AFAD reported that amphibious aircraft, helicopters, and personnel support were received from Qatar and Azerbaijan through the coordination of AFAD, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the General Directorate of Forestry. A total of 3,798 personnel were assigned to the operation, including 43 helicopters, 13 planes, 453 firefighting vehicles, 166 heavy machinery, 22 fire trucks, 28 water cannons (TOMA), and 2 UAVs were used to combat the fire. The Turkish Disaster Response Plan was activated, and nutrition and communication working groups provided services in the disaster-affected area.11

On July 13, 2022, a forest fire occurred in the district of Datça in Muğla. The General Directorate of Forestry assigned 520 personnel to intervene in the fire, utilizing 8 planes, 14 helicopters, 103 firefighting vehicles, and 11 heavy machinery. Additionally, in coordination with AFAD and the Governorate, 1 helicopter and 3 water cannons, 5 buses, and 3 heavy machinery were provided by the Provincial Security Directorate. The General Command of Gendarmerie also contributed to the firefighting efforts with 3 helicopters and 15 water tankers. According to AFAD, 5 houses at risk were evacuated, ensuring the evacuation of 15 people.12

Excessive Rainfall and Floods 

Following the severe rainfall warning issued by the General Directorate of Meteorology on June 26, 2022, relevant institutions went on high alert in the Western Black Sea Region. Within just 24 hours after the warning, it was reported by AFAD that there were significantly above-normal rainfall amounts in Kastamonu-İnebolu, Bartın-Erit, Düzce-Yığılca, Sinop-Ayancık, Zonguldak-Devrek, and Samsun-Yakakent. For Düzce, Zonguldak, Bartın, Karabük, Kastamonu, and Sinop, a ‘Red Alert’ was issued, while Ankara, Çankırı, Bolu, Karabük, Kastamonu, Bartın, Zonguldak, and Düzce received a ‘Yellow Warning’ urging citizens to stay away from river beds through SMS notifications.

Unfortunately, as a result of the ensuing floods and inundations, two people were reported missing: one in Üçköprü, Düzce, and another in İkizciler village, Küre district of Kastamonu. In order to address the damages caused by the disaster in Zonguldak, Kastamonu, Bartın, Sinop, Düzce, and Karabük provinces, a total of 47,150,000 TL in aid was allocated to the affected region. This includes 13,900,000 TL from the emergency assistance fund of AFAD, 4,000,000 TL from a relief campaign, 3,000,000 TL from the Ministry of Family and Social Services, and 26,250,000 TL from the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization, and Climate Change.13


On September 16, 2022, at 23:30, an earthquake with a magnitude of 4.9 occurred in the Çat district of Erzurum, affecting Erzurum and Bingöl. There were no casualties or significant property damage.14 Later, on September 27, 2022, at 17:08, another earthquake with a magnitude of 5.0 and a depth of 7 km occurred in the Göle district of Ardahan, specifically in the villages of Çullu, Küçük Altınbulak, Koyunlu, Kuytuca, and Esenyayla, causing minor damage. Three people were injured, and 111 aftershocks were experienced in the region. Various organizations, including AFAD, Gendarmerie, Fire Department, Turkish Red Crescent, Provincial Special Administration, Provincial Directorate of Health, Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change, mobilized 209 personnel and 47 vehicles in the earthquake zone. AFAD provided 100 tents from its logistics depot for the affected residents, while the Turkish Red Crescent distributed 900 food packages, 700 bottles of water, 1,150 beverages, and 750 bowls of soup. Additionally, AFAD allocated 500,000 TL in emergency aid funds for the recovery of damages in the region. These details were shared with the public.15

On October 11, 2022, an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.1 occurred in the Düziçi district of Osmaniye at 18:48 local time. There were no casualties or significant property damage reported as a result of this earthquake. However, on November 23, 2022, another earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 struck the Gölyaka district of Düzce at 04:08 local time.16 According to data from the Ministry of Health, a total of 93 people were injured in the following locations: 37 in Düzce, 2 in İstanbul, 14 in Bolu, 10 in Zonguldak, 26 in Sakarya, and 4 in Bursa. The fact that the earthquake did not cause severe destruction or loss of life is considered an important indicator of lessons learned from the devastating earthquake that occurred in the region on November 12, 1999, and the success achieved in disaster management. Following the earthquake, TAMP was activated and 13 working groups were mobilized. Various public institutions and organizations, including AFAD, Gendarmerie, Police, 112 Emergency Services, Ministry of Environment, Urbanization, and Climate Change, Turkish Red Crescent, AFAD volunteers, and NGOs, deployed personnel and resources to the affected region. A total of 3,748 personnel and 812 vehicles were assigned to assist in the response efforts. Working groups such as Disaster Damage Assessment, Disaster Infrastructure, and Disaster Relief Stockpile conducted their activities.17 Additionally, AFAD established 260 container settlements in the city center, and container living areas were created for residents whose homes were damaged in the Gölyaka, Çilimli, and Cumayeri districts.18

Mine Explosion 

On October 14, 2022, an explosion occurred in a coal mine owned by the Turkish Coal Enterprises in the Amasra district of Bartın province, resulting in 41 fatalities and 11 injuries.19 Following the incident, rescue teams from Bartın Provincial Disaster and Emergency Management Authority, Police, 112 Emergency Services, Fire Department, Gendarmerie, and Turkish Coal Enterprises were dispatched to the area.20 AFAD teams from Sakarya, Kütahya, and Eskişehir provinces were also sent. The Turkish Red Crescent provided 2 catering vehicles, 3 personnel vehicles, 2 mobile coordination trucks, and 1 mobile base station. Additionally, field lighting equipment was sent to the region from Bolu, Karabük, Düzce, Sakarya, and Ankara. In the aftermath of the explosion, it was decided in the General Assembly of the Grand National Assembly of Türkiye to establish an investigation commission to examine all aspects of the mining accident.21

Legal-Administrative and Institutional Developments

In 2022, significant legal and administrative developments regarding disaster management were experienced in Türkiye, and these changes are summarized in Table 1. The regulations related to disaster response have been updated in an integrated manner with the Presidential system, and following the Disaster and Emergency Response Services Regulation, the Türkiye Disaster Response Plan has been put into effect. The Türkiye Disaster Risk Reduction Plan was prepared for 11 general and widespread types of disasters in line with the priorities of the United Nations Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and was adopted on July 8, 2022. The implementation of the 17 objectives, 66 targets, and 222 actions identified under the TDRRP has been initiated since its enactment. Additionally, a regulation concerning pipeline systems for earthquake disasters has been implemented.

The Nuclear Regulatory Law, which regulates activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation and the entities, facilities, devices, and materials associated with these activities, has come into effect. Subsequently, the ‘Presidential Decree Regarding the Organization and Duties of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority’ numbered 95 was adopted, specifying the duties, powers, responsibilities, organization, and functioning of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. A regulation governing the impact of aviation activities on greenhouse gas emissions related to climate change has been enacted, and a cooperation agreement has been signed with the United Arab Emirates in the field of meteorology. A decision has been made to urgently expropriate certain immovable properties to heal the wounds caused by the flood disaster that occurred in Giresun in 2020. 

Among the institutional changes made throughout the year, an important development related to AFAD is the Decree numbered 103 published in the Official Gazette on June 9, 2022, titled ‘Decree on Making Changes in Certain Presidential Decrees.’ Through this decree, changes have been made in Decree No. 1 and No. 4 of the Presidency, and four new general directorates have been established under the Deputy Presidents of AFAD, namely Earthquake and Risk Reduction, Shelter and Construction Works, Disaster Response and Management Services (Table 1). The laws, presidential decrees, regulations, and decisions of the President adopted during the year are detailed in Table 1. 

Table 1. Legal Regulations Implemented Regarding Disasters in 2022

Official Gazette DateRegulation NameFieldResponsible Body
24.02.2022Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services.The Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services came into effect.AFAD
05.03.2022Regulation on Amendments to the Earthquake Regulation for Türkiye Pipeline Systems and Liquid Storage Tanks.Some changes were made to certain articles of the existing regulation and additionally provided sections. The purpose of the regulation is to determine the necessary conditions for evaluating and strengthening the performance of petroleum and natural gas transmission and storage systems in terms of earthquake resilience. Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
08.03.2022Law No. 7381 on Nuclear RegulationThe purpose of this law is to regulate the principles, responsibilities, and protection of the sectors that will be affected during the process of carrying out activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation within the scope of peaceful use principles. It is stipulated that activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, as well as individuals, facilities, devices, and substances related to these activities, will be evaluated within the scope of the law. Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources 
08.03.2022Presidential Decree on the Organization and Duties of the Nuclear Regulation Institution No. 95The duties, authorities, and responsibilities of the Nuclear Regulation Institution, as well as the functioning of its organization and personnel, have been regulated.Presidency 
19.03.2022International Treaty No. 5328 DecisionThe Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of meteorology between the Turkish Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change and the UAE Ministry of Presidential Affairs National Meteorology Center approved.Ministry of Environment, Urbanism and Climate Change
25.03.2022Regulation on the Monitoring of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation Activities No. 31789The purpose of the regulation is to regulate the procedures and principles for monitoring, reporting and verification of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from national and international aviation activities. It is specified that flights for humanitarian aid, medical purposes, firefighting, and flights conducted by state aircraft are exempted from the scope of the regulation.General Directorate of Civil Aviation
09.06.2023Presidential Decree on Making Amendments to Certain Presidential Decrees No. 103By making amendments to Presidential Decrees No. 1 and 4, the organizational structure of AFAD has been revised to establish four general directorates under the vice presidents. These directorates are the Directorate of Earthquake and Risk Reduction, Housing and Construction, Disaster Response and Management Services, respectively.AFAD
08.07.2022Türkiye Disaster Risk Reduction Plan (TARAP)TARAP goes into effectAFAD
15.09.2022Türkiye Disaster Response Plan (TAMP)With the system that changed in 2018, changes have occurred both in AFAD and in ministries and affiliated institutions through Presidential Decrees. The Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services and TAMP have been updated to include both Presidential Decrees and decisions of the Disaster and Emergency Management Board.AFAD
2022 Presidential Decisions

Regulation Name
05.02.2022The Presidential Decree regarding the Urgent Expropriation by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization, and Climate Change of Certain Immovables within the Boundaries of Gül and Tepebaşı Neighborhoods, located in Mardin Province, Yeşilli District, which have been unlawfully constructed in violation of the Major Part of the Zoning Legislation, under Law No. 6306 on the Transformation of Areas at Risk of Disasters. 
25.02.2023Presidential Decree regarding the Urgent Expropriation by İyidere Municipalty of the immovables with plot numbers 5, 11, 12, 14, and 15, located in Fetiye Neighborhood, İyidere District, Rize Province, under Law No. 5241, with the aim of taking precautionary measures against potential disaster risks following the flood disasters that occurred in 2021. 
25.02.2022Presidential Decree regarding the Urgent Expropriation by the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, for the purpose of constructing necessary housing for the rightful owners affected by the flood disaster that occurred on 10-11 August 2021, of certain immovables located within the boundaries of Otmanlı Village, Ayancık District, Sinop Province, under Law No. 5242. 
12.02.2022Presidential Decree regarding the Support for Small-Scale Fishermen Affected by the Disaster in Bartın, Kastamonu, and Sinop Provinces under Law No. 5292. 
22.03.2022Presidential Decree regarding the Right to Benefit from Public Transportation Services. 
23.03.2022Presidential Decree regarding the Urgent Expropriation by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization, and Climate Change of certain immovables subject to private ownership located within the declared Reserve Construction Area in Göztepe Neighborhood, Bala District, Ankara Province, for the purpose of clearing illegally constructed, unlicensed, uninhabitable structures carrying disaster risks, and creating healthy and safe living spaces in compliance with environmental, urban planning, and climate change regulations, along with transportation and infrastructure, in accordance with engineering and architectural standards. 
23.03.2022Presidential Decree on the Urgent Expropriation of Certain Immovables by the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency for the Purpose of Construction of Housing Needed for the Affected Right Holders due to the Floods, Water Inundation, and Landslides Occurred in Giresun Province on August 22-23, 2020; numbered 5342.
22.04.2022Presidential Decree on the Urgent Expropriation by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization, and Climate Change of the Immovable Properties Subject to Private Ownership, Along with Their Structures, Listed in the Annex List within the Scope of Law No. 6306 on Transformation of Areas Under Disaster Risk, Located within Emek and Aksaray Neighborhoods, Antakya District, Hatay Province, for the Purpose of Eliminating Disaster Risk and Creating Healthy and Safe Living Spaces. 
22.04.2022Decree of the President Regarding the Urgent Expropriation by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization, and Climate Change of Certain Immovables within the Scope of the Law on Transformation of Areas at Risk of Disasters, which are determined to remain in the Buffer Zone around the Active Fault Line as a Result of the Works Carried Out, Located within Demirciler Neighborhood, Gerede District, Bolu Province, and the Information on Expropriation Provided in the Attached List, According to Law No. 6306. 
04.06.2022 Decree of the President Regarding the Urgent Expropriation by the Disaster and Emergency Management Authority for the Purpose of Meeting the Housing Needs of the Disaster Victims who are the Rights Holders due to Certain Disasters Occurred in Elazığ, Tokat, and Trabzon Provinces, According to Law No. 5684.
15.06.2022Decree of the President Regarding the Principles of Making Amendments to the Regulations on Tenders to be Held within the Scope of Article 3 (B) of Law No. 4734 on Public Procurement, by the Disaster and Emergency Management Authority According to Law No. 5732. 
21.07.2022Decree of the President Regarding the Urgent Expropriation by the Mass Housing Administration of Certain Immovables for the Purpose of Accomplishing the Required Construction in Areas Affected by Floods and Landslides Occurred within the Boundaries of Buyukkoy Town, Cayeli District, Rize Province, According to Law No. 5813. 
13.08.2022Decree of the President Regarding the Urgent Expropriation by the Kalecik Municipality of Private Properties Subject to Law No. 5968 within the Scope of the Law on Transformation of Areas at Risk of Disasters, Located within the Boundaries of Kalecik District, Ankara Province, According to Law Noç 6306. 
02.09.2022Decree of the President Regarding the Principles on Making Amendments to the Regulations on Tenders to be Held Within the Scope of Article 3 (B) of Law No. 4734 on Public Procurement, by the Disaster and Emergency Management Authority According to Law No. 5996. 
06.09.2022Presidential Decree on the Urgent Expropriation by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization, and Climate Change of the Real Estates Subject to Private Ownership, Including the Structures on Them, Listed in the Attachment within the Scope of the Law on the Transformation of Areas at Risk of Disaster, Located within the Boundaries of Yazı Neighborhood, Osmancık District, Çorum Province, Law No. 6007 and Law No. 6306. 
05.10.2022Decree by the President regarding the Urgent Expropriation by Mamak Municipality for the Purpose of Clearing Properties under Private Ownership Falling within the Scope of the Law on the Transformation of Areas at Risk of Disasters, Located within the Boundaries of Mutlu Neighborhood, Mamak District, Ankara Province, along with Structures on them that are Contrary to the Zoning Legislation in the Project Area, Unlicensed, Uninhabited, and Pose a Disaster Risk, Detrimental to General Public Order and Security, in order to Create Healthy and Safe Living Areas in Compliance with the Rules of Science and Art, in conjunction with Transportation and Infrastructure. 
08.12.2022Decree by the President regarding the Urgent Expropriation by İyidere Municipality for the Purpose of Rehabilitating a Portion of Properties Located on Menderes Street, Merkez Neighborhood, İyidere District, Rize Province, in order to Mitigate Flood and Flash Flood Risks in the Streambed Located in the Town Center. 
10.12.2022Decree by the President regarding the Urgent Expropriation by Kalecik Municipality for the Purpose of Expropriating Properties under Private Ownership Falling within the Scope of the Law on the Transformation of Areas at Risk of Disasters, Located within the Boundaries of Kalecik District, Ankara Province. 

2022 ‘Disaster Drill Year’

2022 was declared as the ‘Disaster Drill Year’ by AFAD. In this context, a total of 9 regional level TAMP (multi-hazard emergency response plan) drills and 48 provincial-level drills were conducted. These drills involved 51,159 universities and schools, 1,041 religious directorates and training centers, 302 hospitals, 70 judiciary buildings including courts and detention centers, 187 industrial zones, 257 student dormitories, 111 cultural structures and museums, 870 apartment complexes and residential sites, 2,924 government buildings, 94 nursing homes, 73 libraries, as well as 130 airports, bus terminals, shopping malls, custom ports, and union headquarters where drills were performed. The total number of drills conducted by AFAD in 2022 were reported as 94,207.22

The Urban Search and Rescue Teams Exercise in Diyarbakır was conducted between 25-26 March 2022 with the participation of 11 AFAD Regional Directorates, 9 AFAD Provincial Directorates, support solution partners including public institutions and organizations, and NGOs. On 20 May 2022, the Evacuation, Placement, and Planning Exercise was held in Istanbul under the coordination of AFAD. Based on a scenario of a 7.5 magnitude earthquake centered in Istanbul’s Adalar district, the exercise included field drills conducted by the Evacuation Planning and Placement Working Group.23 24 Before the start of summer, on 26 May 2022, AFAD carried out the Forest Fires Exercise simultaneously in Muğla, Mersin, and Adana, with Antalya as the main center.25

On the 23rd anniversary of the Düzce Earthquake on 12 November 1999, at 18:57, the ’12 November Earthquake Remembrance National Exercise’ was conducted nationwide under the coordination of AFAD with the aim of increasing societal awareness about disasters. This exercise, conducted for the first time in Türkiye’s disaster management history with the slogan ‘Collapse-Duck-Cover (Hold On)’; involved citizen participation in Türkiye and Northern Cyprus through telephone, television, radio, and local announcement systems, as well as the support of public institutions, media, and NGOs.26

Climate Summit

The Climate Summit was held in Konya between 21-25 February 2022 with the participation of relevant stakeholders organized by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change. During the Climate Summit, commissions worked on various sectors related to climate change and decisions were made. At the Summit, it was decided to avoid permissions/allocations that would cause carbon sink losses in forests, agriculture, pastures, and wetlands directly related to disasters, and increase the risk of disasters such as erosion, floods, landslides, avalanches, droughts, and desertification. The aim was to reduce extreme weather events and associated integrated disaster risk, increase the resilience of interconnected systems for adaptation to climate change, create risk maps and decision support systems, strengthen the agricultural insurance system against disasters, develop an insurance mechanism to compensate for losses and damages caused by natural disasters, transition from crisis management to risk management model in local-level disasters, integrate development plans, spatial plans, disaster plans, and other policy documents, strategic plans with local climate change action plans, and design digitalization in a suitable and climate-friendly manner for disaster risk management. Policy recommendations and decisions were put forward on these issues.27

Calls for the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism

The European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001 with the Directorate-General for Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (DG ECHO) of the European Commission, is responsible for activities related to the protection of human beings, the environment, and cultural heritage in cases of disaster and emergency situations. Every year project calls are made in line with the ‘Annual Work Programme of the Mechanism.’ AFAD, as the focal point institution, has also made a project application call throughout Türkiye, focusing on disaster prevention projects, early warning and analysis, civil protection exercises, completion of deficiencies, preparedness projects, expert exchanges, peer assessment programs, meetings, workshops, training, consultancy to increase awareness, and dissemination of good practice examples. The theme for 2022 was determined as the prevention and preparedness for natural and man-made disasters, including marine pollution at sea and coastal areas. The focus of the theme was to strengthen cooperation among members and other countries.28

October 13 International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction

The International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction was declared by the UN General Assembly in 1989 with the aim of creating global awareness of disaster risk reduction. The theme highlighted in 2022 was ‘significantly increasing the access and availability of multi-hazard early warning systems, disaster risk information, and assessments to people,’ which is one of the goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. TARAP, the Warning and Alarm System (IKAS) Project, and the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Plans (IRAPs) have been significant outputs serving this theme. Under the coordination of AFAD, the IRAP, which came into effect in 2021 with a total of 12,890 actions, including 2,487 high-priority actions, carried out in all 81 provinces, aimed to be implemented in an integrated structure along with TARAP, which came into effect in 2022.29 30

Early Warning and Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

With some measures taken in 2022 and early warnings issued, the transformation of risks into disasters has been prevented. While the physical installation works for IKAS, an important warning and alarm system project of AFAD, continue for the transmission of hazard and warning news to the citizens, sub-systems have already been put into effect. The News Reception and Dissemination (HAY) and Message Alert (MUS) sub-systems were activated in June 2022, first in Western Black Sea and then in Marmara, to alert citizens through text messages and mobile alarm systems before rainfall events. With IKAS, announcements were made through the central call-to-prayer system in Bartın, Kastamonu, and Zonguldak. It was reported by AFAD that the HAY and MUS sub-systems were used during the Early Warning Exercise in Vakfıkebir in June 2022.31 Through the IKAS system, on August 10 at 14:00, a ‘orange alert’ was issued by the General Directorate of Meteorology, and a call for ‘attention and precaution’ against adverse conditions such as floods, lightning, hail, and tornadoes was sent to citizens’ mobile phones via SMS and the e-AFAD application, in the eastern part of Marmara and the Western Black Sea provinces where heavy rainfall was expected.32 Thanks to the warnings sent through early warning systems, significant successes were achieved in the process of authorities and local administrators taking precautions and reducing disaster risks.

Türkiye continues to make significant progress in disaster management day-by-day and constantly improves its capacity from risk reduction to humanitarian aid. By learning from previous disasters in disaster policies, it progresses towards building a resilient society and a resilient country, starting with resilient individuals. Developments in disaster prediction and early warning systems contribute to being more prepared against disaster risks and increasing awareness. Sustainability, ecosystem preservation, integration of risk and reduction and climate change adaptation are among the top priorities. Investments made to reduce disaster risks will form an important foundation for Türkiye to become a resilient country in its sustainable development.

Taking proactive policies for the management of risks, working on risk management from theory to practice, establishing information flows from central to local levels, fostering collaborations between various stakeholders such as citizens’ participation and volunteering, private sector involvement, NGO participation, and R&D studies supported by high technology are crucial steps to ensure the continuity of implemented applications. 

1. UNDRR, (2021). Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Implementing Nature-based Solutions for Resilience, United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. 

2. Climate Centre (2023). https://stories.climatecentre.org/annual-report-2021/ index.html#group-section-Climate-and-conflict-iRo6rLW1sn 

3. IFRC. (2023). Annual Report 2021, The three C’s: Covid, climate, conflict, Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre https://stories.climatecentre.org/annual-report-2021/index.html#group-section-Climate-and-conflict-iRo6rLW1sn 

4. Reliefweb, (2023). https://reliefweb.int/report/world/2022-year-when-disasters-compounded-and-cascaded 

5. The World Weather Attribution (WWA) Initiative, established with the aim of providing assessments on the role of disasters and climate change, is a collaboration among experts from various institutions. These include Imperial College in London, UK; The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the Netherlands; Sciences Laboratory of Climate and the Environment (LSCE) in France; Princeton University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the United States; Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zurich) in Switzerland; Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi) in India; and the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre (RCCC) worldwide. 

6. UNESCAP, (2023). Asia And The Pacific SDG Progress Report 2022, Widening Disparities Amid Covid-19 https://www.unescap.org/kp/2022/asia-and-pacific-sdg-progress-report-2022 

7. worldweatherattribution, (2023). https://www.worldweatherattribution.org/ climate-change-likely-increased-extreme-monsoon-rainfall-flooding-highly-vulnerable-communities-in-pakistan/ 

8. LANCET, (2022). The 2022 Report of The Lancet Countdown on Health And Climate Change: Health At The Mercy of Fossil Fuels. www.thelancet.com Vol 400 November 5, 2022, https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2822%2901540-9 

9. IFRC, (2023). World Disasters Report 2022 Trust, Equity and Local Action Lessons From The Covid-19 Pandemic To Avert The Next Global Crisis. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, 2023 https:// www.ifrc.org/document/world-disasters-report-2022 

10. Republic of Türkiye Ministry of Health (2022),COVID-19 Bilgilendirme Platformu, https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/ 

11. AFAD. (June 24, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/marmariste-yangina-mudahale-calismalari-devam-ediyor-basin-bulteni-24062022-0930-itibariyla 

12. AFAD. (13 July, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/muglada-orman-yanginina-mudahale-calismalari-hk-basin-bulteni-13072022-1600-itibariyla. 

13. AFAD. (29 June, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/bati-karadenizde-meydana-gelen-yagislar-hk-1620-itibariyla-basin-bulteni. 

14. AFAD. (17 September 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/erzurumda-meydana-gelen-49-buyuklugundeki-deprem-hk-basin-duyurusu 

15. AFAD. (28 September 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/ardahanda-meydana-gelen-deprem-hk–basin-bulteni-4 

16. AFAD. (11 November 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/osmaniyede-meydana-gelen-51-buyuklugundeki-deprem 

17. AFAD. (23 November 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/duzcede-meydana-gelen-5-9-buyuklugundeki-deprem-hk-basin-bulteni-23112022-saat-1200-itibariyla 

18. AFAD. (24 November 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/duzcede-meydana-gelen-59-buyuklugundeki-deprem-hk-basin-bulteni-24112022-saat-1950-itibariyla 

19. TRT. (19 October 2022). https://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/bartindaki-maden-kazasi-icin-komisyon-kuruldu-717281.html 

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21. TRT. (19 October, 2022). https://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/bartindaki-maden-kazasi-icin-komisyon-kuruldu-717281.html 

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23. AFAD. (19 May, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/2022-afet-tatbikat-yili-kapsaminda-istanbul-tatbikati-basin-duyurusu-19052022. 

24. AFAD. (24 March, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/2022-afet-tatbikat-yili-kapsaminda-diyarbakir-tatbikati-basin-duyurusu 

25. AFAD. (25 May, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/afet-tatbikat-yili-kapsaminda-orman-yanginlari-tatbikati-gerceklestiriliyor-basin-bulteni 

26. AFAD. (12 November, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/12-kasim-deprem-ani-ulke-tatbikati-cok-kapan-hayata-tutun-gerceklestirildi 

27. Climate Summit. (2022). https://iklimsurasi.gov.tr/ 

28. AFAD. (14 March, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/ab-sivil-koruma-mekanizmasi-proje-cagrilari 

29. AFAD. (13 October, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/13-ekim-uluslararasi-afet-risklerinin-azaltilmasi-gunu-farkindalik-olusturuyor-basin-bulten 

30. AFAD. (11 August, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/afad-ikaz-ve-alarm-sistemi-ikas-yagislardan-once-telefonlara-erken-uyari-gonderdi-basin-bulteni. 

31. AFAD. (13 October, 2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/13-ekim-uluslararasi-afet-risklerinin-azaltilmasi-gunu-farkindalik-olusturuyor-basin-bulten 

32. AFAD. (2022). https://www.afad.gov.tr/butunlesik-ikaz-alarm-sistemi-projesi-ikas0

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